This article was originally published in 2011, but I’ve updated it a couple of times since, this latest one in 2018 following a run of hits.
The original article came about after watching an argument flare up on a forum concerning the 4Es. Basically, no one knew what they were, but they’d all done a quick search and were arguing their own interpretations of the first hit they’d come across on Google. It’s funny watching people trying to put each other down when none of them have a clue.
Since the original article, some idiot organisations have turned the 4Es into the 5Es. I suppose it means they can have more meetings and do more flipcharts instead of getting on with some bloody work. There’s even the 3Es out there somewhere. And even if you find an explanation from the UK, the order and even the word for each of the Es will create still further confusion!
One of the big problems trying to get to the bottom of what the 4Es are all about is that even the people apparently implementing them obfuscate things so much that it is obvious they really don’t have a clue, either. That’s the classic sort of behaviour that I had to endure when I was in the rat race. The best place to go for a serious explanation is America, and this public safety site for Nevada is probably the best I’ve seen.
Nevada gives them as:
- emergency response
The Wikipedia entry explains:
Accident prevention and improvement of traffic safety
This comprises education and information, above all following the “4 Es”: enforcement, education, engineering, encouragement/economy. The main goal is promoting safety by influencing and modifying behavior using legal, educational, vehicle- and road-specific measures; driver training, driving-instructor education, information on traffic issues, campaign design and marketing, effective enforcement.
You will note the slight difference with the fourth one, though if you think about it, Nevada has it covered with their version – and bear in mind that they actually use it.
“Engineering” means things like road design, lane markings, footpaths, and so on (design things with safety in mind). “Enforcement” means publicity, policing, and so on (remind people, and pull them up if they don’t comply). “Education” means giving out information, conducting campaigns, and so on for all users (pedestrians and drivers). “Emergency response” refers to maintaining a “first responder” system.
India has been looking into it, and they refer to:
…included engineering of safe roads, provision of emergency care, enforcement of traffic rules and regulations, the use of ITS for improving road safety, and the creation of an educational and awareness campaign for changing road user behaviour to improve road safety.
The same headings as Nevada. And the ITE – an international organisation – says:
Within the 4 E’s of transportation safety, “engineering” and “education” are two of the more traditional focuses for transportation engineers and planners. However, the importance of “enforcement” and “emergency responses” should not be understated, and both are critical elements of a successful roadway safety management program.
I’m not completely sure where the hits on the blog are coming from, so I don’t know who is searching, or why. It does seem popular, though, and mostly the search terms being used include the word “discuss” – which is why the 4th E is particularly interesting. However, from a driving instructor’s point of view, the education part is the one they are going to be dealing with, though perhaps with a little enforcement thrown in.
Remember, though, that it is the dog which wags the tail – not the other way round – and decent instructors are covering their part automatically without having to worry about acronyms and the inevitable flipcharts and Powerpoint sessions.