A Driving Instructor's Blog

There is a lot of confusion over roundabouts – with both learners and experienced drivers. Signalling, lane choice, and lane discipline seem to provide the biggest challenges for most drivers.

The Highway Code (HC) says this about roundabouts (Rule 186):

Signals and position.

When taking the first exit to the left, unless signs or markings indicate otherwise

  • signal left and approach in the left-hand lane
  • keep to the left on the roundabout and continue signalling left to leave

When taking an exit to the right or going full circle, unless signs or markings indicate otherwise

  • signal right and approach in the right-hand lane
  • keep to the right on the roundabout until you need to change lanes to exit the roundabout
  • signal left after you have passed the exit before the one you want

When taking any intermediate exit, unless signs or markings indicate otherwise

  • select the appropriate lane on approach to the roundabout
  • you should not normally need to signal on approach
  • stay in this lane until you need to alter course to exit the roundabout
  • signal left after you have passed the exit before the one you want

When there are more than three lanes at the entrance to a roundabout, use the most appropriate lane on approach and through it.

Although this is quite clear, it doesn’t provide a single, all-encompassing rule that works for every roundabout and every situation. Therefore, many drivers continue to have problems whenever they encounter one.

Part of the problem is that you have marked and unmarked roundabouts – that is, you have roundabouts with marked lanes and those where the lanes are implied either by how many lanes lead into it, how wide the feed roads are at the entry point, or sometimes just how wide the roundabout is.

Before reading any further, let me stress one more time: every roundabout is different and you absolutely cannot just assume that they all work the same way, or are covered by a single “golden rule”. What works in one location might be totally wrong elsewhere in the country – even for similar roundabout layouts.

Unmarked Roundabouts – Symmetrical

Let’s look at the easiest situation first of all – an unmarked (that is, no lane dividers on the roundabout itself) symmetrical (or almost symmetrical) roundabout like the one shown here, which is wide enough to Symmetrical Roundaboutaccommodate two cars as they pass through it. Indicating on approach is straightforward: you signal left if you’re going left (1st exit) and right if you’re going right (3rd exit or full circle). You do not signal for the straight ahead (2nd) exit.

As far as your road position goes you have to imagine the lanes and adopt the appropriate position. You should normally adopt the left hand position on approach for the 1st and 2nd exits and remain in this position all the way round. You should adopt the right hand position on approach if you’re taking the 3rd exit or if you’re going full circle, and remain in that position until you get to the exit just before the one you need.  In all cases you should signal left to leave the roundabout as you pass the exit before the one you require. In the case of turning right or going full circle you will also need to check your nearside mirror as you cut across the left hand “lane” to leave.

In some cases, when taking the 2nd exit it may be necessary to adopt the right hand position (if there is queuing traffic for the 1st exit, for example). However, this does not mean that you should always adopt that position even when there is no traffic. The normal position – unless signs, road markings, or trustworthy local knowledge say otherwise – is on the left when going ahead.

Unmarked Roundabouts – Asymmetrical

When a roundabout isn’t symmetrical you have to start applying a little bit of common sense and judgement, and deal with each one on its own merits. As I said earlier, there Asymmetrical Roundaboutis no all-encompassing rule, and this is especially true of asymmetrical roundabouts like the one shown here.

Let’s get one thing out of the way right now: there is no such thing as “the 12 o’clock rule”. At some point in the past, someone somewhere tried to create a single procedure that works for all roundabouts and called it “the 12 o’clock rule” (indeed, I believe that it used to be a standard method taught by a large national school). But there is a problem with it: it doesn’t work all the time, so it cannot be called “a rule” at all.

In general, your lane positioning and signalling on approach will be exactly the same as for the symmetrical roundabouts discussed above.

If the roundabout is as simple as it appears on this diagram then you might be tempted to signal right if you’re taking the 2nd exit. However, particularly if you’re in the left hand lane position on the roundabout, your signal could be confusing to other road users (in some cases, dangerously so), who might be expecting you to move out or continue going round. You might get away with it on smaller asymmetrical roundabouts which don’t have space for two cars, but on those which are wide enough for two cars to legitimately travel side-by-side you could easily cause confusion by signalling right for the intermediate exit. This is precisely why the HC says that you only normally need to signal for the first and last exits, and not the intermediate ones. It also illustrates clearly why the 12 o’clock rule simply doesn’t work.

Remember that your choice of lane or lane position is not automatic and depends on the individual roundabout and the circumstances at the time.

Examples Of Unmarked Roundabouts

As I said above, all roundabouts are different. These examples are from Nottingham in the areas where I teach. Some are on test routes, and some aren’t. Some of them don’t exist anymore (thanks to Nottingham’s tram) but still provide useful guidance for the purposes of this article.

This first one is a couple of hundred metres down the road from the old Chalfont Drive Test Centre. When tests were conducted there, 99.9% of candidates had to negotiate it. The test centre was located on the road marked A, and as you approach the roundabout along that road the 2nd exit (marked B) is dramatically to the right, and the 3rd exit (marked C) is even further round.

Robins Wood Road near Chalfont Drive

Road A is not wide enough for two cars to sit side-by-side on entry to the roundabout. I teach all of my pupils that they should signal right whether they are taking the 2nd or 3rd exits. However, the other entry roads have two marked lanes on approach, and this implies that the roundabout itself is two lanes wide – so there is enough room for two cars to travel side-by-side (which often happens during rush hour). Therefore, I also teach people that if they are taking the 2nd exit (marked B) they should position themselves to the left at the red dot and signal left immediately they pass the 1st exit. If taking the 3rd exit (marked C) or going full circle they should position themselves to the right at the dot and signal left as they pass the 2nd exit (or 3rd if going full circle).

This second example is a mini-roundabout in West Bridgford, where the majority of traffic enters and leaves the roundabout via roads A and B – the “straight ahead” direction. The benefit and relevance of a signal varies significantly depending on which way you’re heading.Mini-roundabout on Wilford Lane

If you’re travelling A to B there is no need for a right signal – even though the exit is after the 12 o’clock position. If you did, you’d be telling people you intended to go full circle, and that would cause a problem for people travelling B to A. Believe me, it IS confusing when someone does it because you can’t risk pulling out in case they really are turning in front of you.

However, when travelling B to A a left signal is important so that those travelling A to B know you’re not going to turn across them and go into that side road. A left signal tells them that you’re not. Again, I can assure you that it helps a lot when you’re travelling the opposite way and drivers signal. In fact, this applies to most three-exit roundabouts where there are no dedicated lanes.

This next example used to be in Clifton (it is no longer there due to the tram). It illustrates what I just said about three-exit roundabouts.Historical roundabout on Soutchurch Drive/Farnborough Road

If you were travelling A to B (which is literally straight ahead), the “12 o’clock rule” would say that you shouldn’t indicate. However, traffic travelling B to A wouldn’t know if you intended to turn right across it into Southchurch Drive. A left signal makes it clear that you’re not. A right signal is not needed when you’re travelling B to A – if you did, then you would be telling people you intended to go full circle back to B.

I must stress again that every roundabout is different and sometimes only experience can teach the best way of dealing with them. Just remember that the 12 o’clock rule is definitely not the answer you’re looking for if you have difficulty with roundabouts.

With all of these examples many people don’t indicate at all, indicate incorrectly, forget to cancel, etc. because they haven’t got a clue how to deal with roundabouts properly in the first place. I see it with some of my pupils – they will never “get” roundabouts completely and are likely to signal in a misleading way once they get out on their own. That’s why you should never trust signals of other road users implicitly. Just use them as part of your overall assessment in any given situation.

You will hopefully notice from the examples I have given that thinking about what you are doing (instead of relying on nonsense like the “12 o’clock rule”) will help you decide whether to indicate or not.

At the risk of repeating myself, there is no single absolute way to deal with roundabouts, and trying to make it so by applying flawed rules ahead of common sense  is both silly and very dangerous.

Roundabouts which don’t have markings are usually small enough for you to see which exit you need in advance – looking and planning ahead is vital when negotiating them.

Marked Roundabouts

Many larger roundabouts have road markings to define lanes and show routes. They also often have multiple intermediate exits of differing sizes and priorities, and you’ll sometimes see them described as gyratory or spiral roundabouts. These are the ones that people seem to have the most trouble with although they’re actually very easy once you know what you’re doing. Personally, I don’t use the terms “gyratory” or “spiral” because technically these apply to all roundabouts. Making a big deal out of them on large roundabouts just scares (and confuses) pupils even more.

I’ve written a separate article about the Nuthall roundabout as a further illustration of how the “12 o’clock rule” doesn’t work reliably. The Nuthall roundabout is huge, and the island itself is raised and covered in trees which means the intermediate exits are not visible. You have to look for and use the road markings and road signs to plan your way through.

The picture on the left shows the markings as you approach the Nuthall roundabout along the A6002 heading towards the city centre (many large Lane Markings - Nuthall Roundabout, Nottinghamroundabouts in other cities would have something similar). The A6002 is a single lane road, but on approach to the roundabout it splits into four lanes. It is important to know where you are going and to get into the correct lane straight away – or rather, not to leave it too late to get into the correct lane. For example, if you know you want to exit along the A610 towards Nottingham, then you should ideally go straight into the right hand lane which has the “A610” route marked in it. Failing that, you will need to move safely into that lane once you see the road markings – on your test this is a much more risky strategy because there will likely be other traffic already moving in behind you, and absolutely the worst thing you can do is leave it too late end up in one of the other lanes, and then try to get over. It would mean moving across other lanes of other traffic, by which time other drivers will almost certainly have boxed you in. It will show the examiner that you didn’t plan ahead properly. Of course, many drivers out there do it wrong all the time, but they aren’t on their tests and they simply end up annoying other drivers and putting dents in their cars as a result.

To be fair, the Nuthall roundabout would be very difficult for anyone to do correctly if they hadn’t done it before, let alone a learner meeting it for the first time on their test. A good driving instructor will therefore make sure their pupil knows how to negotiate this sort of roundabout before they go to test. That applies everywhere – not just in Nottingham.

Once you’re in the correct approach lane it is vital to stay in that lane on the roundabout, and to only change lanes when there is a valid choice available in front of you (i.e.if your lane branches further to the right for additional lanes or other exits). Technically, you can get it totally wrong and still move across several lanes on the roundabout to correct yourself as long as you do it safely. However, the fact that you got it wrong in the first place is already likely to be marked as a driver fault, and if you get in the way of other drivers – which is highly probable given that in the case of the Nuthall roundabout you’re at a major junction for the M1 – .then it will be marked as a serious or dangerous fault.

Also remember that what learners and new drivers think and what they are capable of doing don’t always marry up. The risk of not doing even the normal safety checks is high enough without adding the need for extra checks by having to switch lanes unnecessarily.

Staying In Lane

I find that a many of my learners have a major problem – at least initially – staying in lane. It seems to stem from not actually seeing the lanes or lane The appearance of a lane in front of youmarkers as they’re driving along. For example, if you look at the diagram on the left you can see a single lane represented as though you were looking at it out of the front of the car. On the Nuthall roundabout, this is more or less how you’d see your lane on your approach.

You can visualise it in various ways. One method is to imagine that the white lines and/or the kerb form the rails of tram or railway lines, and it is the driver’s task to remain inside them and not to go “off the rails”. Another is to think in terms of perspective – like you might use when drawing or painting a picture – where the lines go off into the distance and eventually meet at some point on the horizon.

Discussing roundabouts further with my pupils, one of the most common complaints is that they get “confused by all those lines crossing over each other”. That’s where it becomes important to see through the clutter and stay focused on your lane.

The diagram on the left shows the same lane as above, but with “clutter” from another lane crossing it. In a real situation The appearance of a lane in front of you which has other lanes crossing ityou might have several crossing lanes. These additional lanes are nothing to do with us as the driver – they are for drivers entering the roundabout from other roads. We need to stay focused on our “tramlines”.

Learners also need to understand that on roundabouts you would not be expected to make sharp turns. In most cases, trying to follow those crossing lanes would require quite dramatic changes in direction and position, and that is not what roundabouts are about. Proper lane branches which apply to you as the driver involve much smoother and gentler steering.

For some years now I have often asked pupils how stressed they are when we are driving (these days, the coaching fraternity would call it “scaling”). What I do is establish with them that if they were sitting at home watching TV, their internal stress-o-meter would be reading around 0. On the other hand, if they had just jumped out of an aeroplane with a parachute that was packed by someone they’d had a big argument with last night, the stress-o-meter would be reading 100. It’s amazing what answers you get when you ask them what they think their reading is as they come up to a roundabout. Some will even tell you the reading is “70 or 80” just sitting in the car. However, being so panicked or stressed is obviously going to affect their perception of what is in front of them.

Are roundabouts classed as junctions?

Obviously, any point where two or more roads meet or cross is a junction.. So yes, they are junctions. However, if you’re thinking in terms of subjects to cover on lessons and possibly even Check Tests, then roundabouts, crossroads, and normal t-junctions with left and right are usually best dealt with separately.

What are the signalling rules at roundabouts?

Read HC Rule 186 (quoted above). You normally signal left or right on approach only for the first or last exits. Intermediate exits normally don’t need an approach signal.

When leaving the roundabout every exit is a left turn, so you normally indicate left at the exit before the one you want.

As I explained above, there are some roundabouts where indicating for intermediate or straight ahead exits makes sense, and some where it doesn’t. You will have to decide for yourself – but there is no rule that fits all situations, so don’t look for one. There are situations where indicating to exit the roundabout isn’t absolutely necessary. For example, if you are in the left-hand lane of two or more marked lanes heading off at the same exit.

If you choose to indicate to exit when it isn’t really necessary, it’s not the end of the world just so long as no one is confused by it. Having said that, if you are on test, be very careful with this. Learners and new drivers often don’t decide not to signal – they just forget, or they decide wrong. It’s down to lack of experience. So I would advise you to signal to exit on most roundabouts even if it isn’t strictly necessary because it gets you into the habit of doing it when it matters. However, examiners will usually only mark it as a fault if it really is the wrong decision.

What is the Highway Code 12 o’clock rule?

There isn’t one! This is a nonsense idea which even some ADIs still cling to as if it really exists! It doesn’t, and it never has. The HC says that on approach you shouldn’t normally need to indicate for any intermediate exit. That word “normally” is the one that makes the “12 o’clock rule” complete nonsense.

There are some roundabouts where the intermediate exit you want is so far to the right that a signal might well benefit other drivers, but there are other situations where it would definitely confuse them. Look at the first example I gave, above, for a situation where it makes sense to indicate. Just make sure that your road position matches your intentions when you negotiate any roundabout.

Doesn’t the Highway Code wording automatically imply the 12 o’clock rule?

Absolutely not. I noticed someone on a forum claim that – right after they had initially claimed that the 12 o’clock rule was mentioned in the Highway Code (HC). The HC says clearly that you normally shouldn’t need to indicate for any intermediate exit. That is as clear a statement as you can get that there is no such thing as the 12 o’clock rule, and it certainly doesn’t suggest that the rule is valid. Quite the opposite.

The HC does not mention the 12 o’clock rule, directly or indirectly. The HC does not imply that the 12 o’clock rule works – because it often doesn’t, and therefore cannot be classed as a “rule”.

So how do you teach a pupil the difference between a roundabout left turn and right turn?

You’re missing the point. It isn’t about where left is and where right is. The HC says clearly that a signal for any intermediate exit isn’t normally needed. That shoots the 12 o’clock rule out of the water as a “rule”.

Signals for intermediate exits frequently end up being misleading. I’ve lost count of the number of times I’ve waited on a busy roundabout (the Nottingham Knight during rush hour is a good example) for someone indicating right for too long (so I wait), only to have them leave via the earlier exit (but having prevented me taking the opportunity to move out). Unnecessary signals for intermediate exits have precisely the same effect on other road users.

But the 12 o’clock rule is just a way to help learners when they’re starting out.

That sounds good on paper, but if you teach something like that to someone who is effectively a blank book, it will become the most important thing in the world to them. Remember that 90% of drivers hate roundabouts, don’t know how they work, and dice with death every time they go near one. They love rules like “the 12 o’clock rule”, which they can confidently quote on forums as a fact (or of being directly from the HC) if someone ever asks for advice.

The 12 o’clock rule is absolutely not a “rule”. Unfortunately, if you teach it to a learner there is nothing you can say that will stop it being treated as such by them. Let’s be honest, though. Many ADIs have the same problems with roundabouts themselves, and the 12 o’clock rule – apart from being falsely held to be a “rule” by them in the first place – is often seen as an easy way out. Once it has been adopted, it then becomes necessary to defend it. And so the problem continues down the years.

It’s up to you, of course. But just think about who and what you’re dealing with.

How do you teach roundabouts not using the 12 o’clock rule?

This is where an ADI earns their money. You need to find out why your pupil can’t manage them, and in most cases it’s because they panic as they approach them. This means it is as if they were wearing a blindfold when they get there - they can’t see the path they need to take in front of them. Papering over this with the 12 o’clock rule isn’t doing anyone any favours, and don’t fool yourself into thinking that they will be able to work it all out for themselves later. If you teach them the 12 o’clock rule, 99% of them will still be blindly following it in 40 years time. They won’t be using any more common sense then than they’re capable of using now.

It makes sense, therefore, to teach it properly. How you get round this depends on the pupil, but they need to slow down and start thinking about where they are and where they need to be – then they can apply some of their theoretical knowledge about roundabouts to get there. In most cases, if you question a pupil who has just made a hash of a roundabout, you’ll discover that at that moment in time they hadn’t got a clue where they were or where they were going, nor could they see lane markers or other traffic. Trust me, you need to deal with that instead of trying to conceal it.

If you’re an ADI who claims to teach “safe driving for life”, you’ll be turning out far safer drivers if you teach them how to think instead of just showing them how to blindly follow some false rule.

Should I indicate to go straight ahead on a 3-exit roundabout?

Look at the mini-roundabout in the second example I gave, above. The main road is A to B, and the side road leads off to a school and recreation area. Here’s what it looks like as you approach it from A (the south).Wilford Lane mini-roundabout - from the south

And here’s what it looks like from B (the north).Wilford Lane mini-roundabout - from the north

Approaching it from A, you would obviously signal if turning left into the school road. But if you intended to continue along B, a right-turn signal would be telling people that you intended to go full circle and pass in front of them – so they would have to stop in case you did. Yet the “12 o’clock rule” would have you indicate, since the exit is after the 12 o’clock position.

Approaching from B is different, though. Again, you’d obviously indicate right to tell people if you intended to take the school road. However, if you intended to continue along A then a left signal is helpful to those coming the opposite way because it tells them you are not going to pass in front of them.

Remember that many drivers signal incorrectly or not at all – and no signal is just as bad as the wrong one in most cases. On this particular roundabout, the school road is often used by dog walkers, and when you consider who dog walkers often are it isn’t at all uncommon for them to turn into the school road without signalling. Therefore, if you signal correctly or helpfully it helps drivers coming the opposite way and avoids them having to stop.

The Golden Rule is that if your signal helps someone and doesn’t confuse them then it is a good idea to use it. And at the risk of creating a “rule”, what I’ve explained here is useful for most three-exit roundabouts. Watch what other drivers do and ask yourself if they’ve helped or confused you by signalling or not signalling, and use that to develop your own strategy in future. Don’t be afraid or ashamed of changing the way you do things as you learn.

But you’re only supposed to signal if you’re changing direction, aren’t you?

That’s nonsense. This question derives from the idea that by going straight ahead on a roundabout you’re not “changing direction”. Driving: The Essential Skills (TES) – the official DSA guide – says:

Use signals

  • to let others know what you intend to do
  • to help other road users, including pedestrians
  • in good time and for long enough to allow other road users to see the signal and act upon it

In the example I used in the previous question, if other road users can’t otherwise be sure of your intentions then using your indicators makes perfect sense. It is helping other road users.

Should I always indicate to go straight ahead?

NO!!! You still see older drivers indicating right when they’re going straight ahead and it is extremely confusing if you’re coming the opposite way. It seems to be a combination of how they were taught (apparently, this was the way to do it once upon a time), and their own attempts to simplify roundabouts and handle them all in exactly the same way because they never understood them anyway. It probably also explains why such drivers are usually weaving all over the place or in the wrong lanes!

Think about the individual situation and do what makes sense for it. Sometimes you will signal, sometimes it is pointless. There is no “one size fits all” solution and it is wrong to try and teach people that there is.

But you shouldn’t rely on people’s signals, should you?

No. And that’s because they often don’t signal or signal incorrectly. Giving a positive signal at the right time helps people. The fact that you shouldn’t rely on other people’s signals doesn’t mean you should stop giving the correct ones yourself.

Isn’t this Highway Code roundabout diagram wrong?

No. This question arises periodically on forums from people trying to pick fault with the HC. Note how the green car turning right is shown exiting in the right hand lane – even though the arrows clearly show that it can exit in either the left or the right lane. For some reason, the usual crowd have got themselves into a real lather over it.The picture in the Highway Code - roundabouts

The diagram is absolutely correct, particularly in view of the fact that every entry road in the diagram has two lanes as well, implying that the roundabout itself has two lanes on it.

If you were in the green car turning right on this particular roundabout there is the very real possibility of a car emerging from one of the other roads and driving alongside you to take the same exit. That car would occupy the left hand lane position and you’d have to stay right until you could merge safely further along.

It would be perfectly acceptable for you (as the green car) to exit by crossing into the left hand lane as long as you had checked that it was safe and that no one was sitting in your left blind spot. But being brutally honest, most learners have got enough to think about when negotiating roundabouts without adding extra safety checks to the list.

A good example of this is the Virgin Roundabout in Nottingham, which features on several Colwick test routes. An aerial view of it is shown below.The Virgin Roundabout in Colwick, Nottingham

The main road is a dual carriageway on one side, and two lanes quickly merging into one on the other (the yellow lines). The two side roads are single lanes into industrial areas, one of which is sometimes used for test purposes (the green line).

The two lanes on the main road define the number of lanes on the roundabout, and this means that emerging from the industrial road in question requires careful thought.

It is perfectly acceptable to move across and merge with the left hand lane as you negotiate the roundabout as long as you do it safely. However, as I have already mentioned, learners are often unable to handle the extra safety aspects involved as well as all the other things they need to do. On top of this, the main road here is very busy and the likelihood of someone entering the roundabout in the left hand lane while the learner is actually on it is extremely high (it’s normal practice, in fact). For that reason – which I explain clearly to all of my learners – the safest and easiest way for them to negotiate the roundabout is to remain in the right-hand lane and exit in that lane (as shown by the green line). Then, all they have to do is merge safely on the main road.

But the “12 o’clock rule” works!

Something only “works” if it is never wrong. The problem is that roundabouts are not built with the “12 o’clock rule” in mind or with the intention of being geometrically perfect. For that reason, a three-exit roundabout could easily have the “ahead” exit after the 12 o’clock position and signalling becomes confusing in many cases. I’ve given examples, above.

The “12 o’clock rule” does not work all the time, and if you’re an ADI using it who believes it does then you need to take a serious look at what you are teaching people. The chances are that you are being led by your dogmatic belief that the “12 o’clock rule” is infallible, and cannot see the potential effect it has on other road users or your learners once they pass their tests. The examples I have provided show clearly that in some cases the signal dictated by the “12 o’clock rule” would be misleading.

Do you always position left for going straight ahead?

No. It depends on the roundabout and the situation. This question was prompted by a reader concerning a test route example in Gloucester, shown here.Roundabout in Gloucester

As you can see, it has five roads leading into it. The test route involves approaching from the road at the bottom and taking the third exit (3). The reader pointed out that the roundabout is completely unmarked and unsigned. So which lane should you use for the third exit?

Looking at the photo – and with the benefit of hindsight – I’d probably use the left hand lane position on approach for the first and second exits, and the right hand lane position for the third, last, and full circle exits. The reader points out that that’s what the examiners expect.

However, someone new to the area encountering that roundabout for the first time could easily attempt the third exit in the left hand approach lane. This clearly shows the importance of local knowledge, and further demonstrates why pupils really do need to be taught specific sections of test routes. There is no way most learners could handle features like this (no signs or markings) if they encounter them for the first time on test.

Finally, I would not signal for the 3rd exit. Doing so would tell people waiting at the 1st and 2nd exits that you were not exiting via the 3rd one, and they could therefore pull on to the roundabout, which is wide enough for two cars (that red car in the photo is ideally placed – if he were indicating right, but intended to leave via exit 3, someone waiting at exit 2 could pull out because the signal would be misleading).

Do you always position right if you’re taking the 3rd exit or turning right?

No. Usually, you will, of course – but there are roundabouts where the left lane can have double- or even triple-headed arrows painted in it. However, if the roundabout is unmarked on approach or has no marked lanes then it is most likely you will use the default roundabout procedure and so adopt the left position – unless local knowledge says otherwise.

Which lane should I choose?

It depends. If the roundabout is a simple four-road one and is unmarked:

  • for left or straight ahead you should approach in the left hand lane (or position to the left at the roundabout if the approach is a single lane). You should stay in that lane until you have left the roundabout, remembering to signal at the exit before the one you want
  • for right or full circle then you should approach in the right hand lane (or position to the right), then check your mirror and signal at the exit before the one you want

If the roundabout is marked, or if it has more than four roads joining it:

  • choose the appropriate lane or position on approach

Signs or road markings might tell you what position to use. Often, it is down to local knowledge and nothing else. Here’s an example submitted by a reader.Roundabout - A47 Norwich to Yarmouth

The A47 from Norwich (A) continues straight ahead to Great Yarmouth (B). It is a dual-carriageway on both sides. The second exit (C) goes to the village of Blofield. The reader asked which lane to use approaching from A when intending to exit via C.

Most marked roundabouts will have signs and road arrows telling you which lanes to use. Remember that unless you really know what you are doing, if two or more lanes are going in your direction, staying in the one on the left is the safest option.

This particular example is complicated by the fact that the main feed roads are dual carriageways, and that changes the priorities somewhat. If you think about it logically, trying to negotiate from A to exit via C in the left lane is potentially dangerous because – in the absence of road markings dictating lane usage – it is perfectly acceptable for people to approach from A and exit via B in the right hand one. This would increase significantly the chance of a collision between an A-B driver on the right and an A-C driver on the left as they attempted to cross each other. However, since there are no signs or even road arrows, someone who didn’t have local knowledge could understandably approach in the left lane.

Unfortunately, therefore, if a roundabout is in any way non-symmetrical, the basic roundabout rule becomes less reliable and you have to use other information to decide how to negotiate it. Fortunately, as you gain experience this is less difficult than it might at first appear.

Can I fail for going straight ahead from the left lane?

Ordinarily, this is the correct lane for straight ahead (i.e. a symmetrical roundabout with four exits). However, if the roundabout is non-symmetrical, has more than one “straight ahead” route, or if sign or road markings indicate otherwise, then the left lane may not be the correct lane to use.

There is no one-size-fits-all in learning to drive and gaining local knowledge through a driving instructor is important in these sorts of cases. You cannot just “do” all roundabouts in exactly the same way, so yes, it is possible to fail for going straight ahead from the left lane if that is not how that particular roundabout should be handled.

What do roundabout exit numbers mean?

This is just a way for you to know where you’re going when you are being given directions. If your instructor (or satnav) says to take the first exit, it means that when you reach the roundabout you leave it by the first available exit road. If you’re told to take the second exit, then you go past the first exit and leave by the next one.

As a learner (or someone who doesn’t know where they are going other than where they want to be at the end of their journey) it enables you to take the correct route to your destination. You will need to count the exits as you negotiate the roundabout otherwise the whole exercise is pointless and you’ll mess up. By doing so, you can change your lane position at the correct time to avoid crossing the paths of others.

Don’t try and turn it into something complicated. It really is as simple as counting the exits.

If the third exit is before 12 o’clock where do you position yourself in a roundabout?

There is no such thing as the “12 o’clock rule”, so this has nothing to do with it. There is no set answer. However, as a guide, if you’re going straight ahead or left you usually position yourself to the left. If you’re going right or full circle you usually position to the right. Road signs and road markings can override this rule.

“Straight ahead” doesn’t automatically mean the 2nd exit – it means any exit which Isn’t left or right. In the Gloucester example above, in that particular case you use the left lane for the 2nd exit and the right lane for the 3rd exit. This is enough to make some people think that the “12 o’clock rule” works for positioning. Well, maybe it does for this one, but there are ones where it doesn’t.

If you are thinking of a particular roundabout near you being handled in a way you don’t expect, whatever you have to do is likely to be specific to that roundabout – it is local knowledge, not a “rule”.

Road markings or other local factors (like queuing traffic for car parks or how large/busy the intermediate exits are) influence how roundabouts work and how they should be handled.

If the 3rd exits is after 12 o’clock where do you position yourself in a roundabout?

Remember again that there no such thing as the “12 o’clock rule” so the answer to this is exactly what the Highway Code says: use the appropriate lane (and that includes positioning accordingly if there are no marked lanes). Refer to the Gloucester example, above.

All roundabouts are different. I’ve given an example earlier (near where the Chalfont Drive test centre used to be) where the 2nd exit is considerably after the 12 o’clock position. I teach my pupils to indicate right for both 2nd and 3rd on this one, but to position left for the 2nd and position right for the 3rd.

Various things that should be considered on other roundabouts include:

  • how many exits are there?
  • are the exits main roads or perhaps entrances to car parks and so on?
  • how heavy is the traffic?
  • does the time of day affect traffic queues on it?
  • are there signs or markings to tell you which lane to use?
  • what effect have you had on other drivers in the past?
  • what do other people do, and what effect do they have on others?

There are plenty more, I’m sure. Be careful of that last one – never copy other people blindly, but be aware of how the locals use the roundabout. If someone misleads you by signalling or not signalling, or by positioning in the wrong place, learn from that and use it to decide how you should handle the roundabout in future.

If anyone has a particular roundabout in mind, feel free to send a Google link via the Contact Form. Please note that when sending Google links, you cannot just copy the link from your address bar – you have to get it from the little chain icon on the Google Maps page.

Why do other people signal if it’s wrong?

In my experience, the majority (or, at least, a huge minority) simply don’t know how to do roundabouts properly. In some cases you even see learners on lessons doing it wrong, no doubt because they’re being taught the “12 o’clock rule” (take a look at this additional article about the Nuthall Roundabout in Nottingham.

This is also a good reason why you should never make a decision to go – on a roundabout or anywhere else – based on signals alone.

What am I supposed to be checking for in my left mirror?

On smaller roundabouts, when you leave it – and particularly when you are turning right and are close to the island – you will usually have to move to the left in order to take your exit. Someone else might be on your left, so a mirror check (and possibly a quick sideways glance, though not a full blind spot check) should be done to make sure it’s safe to move over. It is quite possible to fail your driving test if you don’t do this properly, especially if someone is next to you.

What do I do if I’m leaving a roundabout and there is traffic on my nearside?

Well, obviously you don’t want to end up colliding with the other traffic, so there’s your starting point. That leaves you with the choice of either slowing down slightly to give way to them, or continuing confidently and allowing them to give way to you. Deciding which option is best requires good observation and assessment of the situation, and you must not just cut across without checking first otherwise you could make contact. Don’t slam on your brakes (except in an emergency), because slowing down too much will just encourage more people to overtake on the left and could result in those behind running into you.

If there are two lanes to exit by then there shouldn’t be a problem – just stay in your lane (see the Virgin example, above). With many roundabouts, even if the exit road is only a single lane, the mouth will be wide enough for two cars in order to allow merging. However, if the exit road is not wide enough for two cars then extra care is needed.

Make sure that you use good lane discipline when you are negotiating roundabouts. I stress again: stay in lane. Weaving across lanes – or being in the wrong one in the first place – means that people might end up on your nearside when they wouldn’t have been if you’d have done it right. Learn from your mistakes and do it right next time.

What is “local knowledge”?

Sometimes, the way to handle a particular road layout or roundabout is dictated by the way the locals do it in the absence of road markings. If you are also local or know the road well, then you become a part of this “local knowledge”.

You cannot safely use local knowledge on junctions you aren’t familiar with. In most cases, the proper way of doing it should be adopted.

How would an ADI teach roundabouts on a Check Test?

An interesting question. The simple answer is that the lesson you give on a Check Test (CT) should be the normal one you’d give the pupil if it was their next ordinary lesson – because you should conduct an ordinary lesson when on your CT. Of course, if you’re doing role play then you’re at the mercy of the examiner.

The purpose of the CT is for the examiner to see that learning has taken place and that you are giving the correct information to your pupil. It isn’t a performance you have to give, nor are you going to demonstrate your fault identification and remedial teaching very well if you plan on spending 20 minutes looking at diagrams and giving “briefings”, no matter how many questions you ask or how many coats of “coaching” you brush on.

Precisely how you’d cover roundabouts therefore depends on the pupil you’re taking with you. Have you covered the basics with them previously? What aspect of roundabouts are they struggling with? Are they pretty much OK with them in the first place? If it’s a role play exercise, you’ll have to pick this information up as you go along. Beyond that, as long as you know how they should be negotiating roundabouts, and you know how to identify and fix any problems which crop up, there’s nothing special to look for. After all, a roundabout is only a form of junction.

So, to answer that question: there is no specific way of teaching roundabouts. Just make sure the correct information is given to your pupil.

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